Portable carpet extractors for auto detailing are designed to remove dirt, dust, and stains from carpets and upholstery. They are small and lightweight, making them easy to use and transport. Most portable carpet extractors come with a hose and brush attachment, making it easy to reach tight spaces and remove stubborn stains.
20 Best Portable Carpet Extractor For Auto Detailing
Bissell 2458 SpotClean Pet Pro Portable Carpet Cleaner
Combines superior suction, scrubbing action and professional cleaning solution to remove stubborn pet stains, embedded dirt and more.
BISSELL SpotClean Pro Pet compact carpet cleaner combines powerful vacuum suction, brushing action and cleaning solution for professional cleaning results removing stubborn dirt and tough pet stains.
Designed to easily clean carpet, upholstery, stairs, area rugs and more. Large capacity 3/4 gallon tank allows you to clean more area without emptying and filling the tank. For versitile cleaning, BISSELL Spotclean Pro Pet comes with pet tools including a Stain Trapper Tool and a Tough Stain Tool.
Equipped with a long hose and 22 ft. power cord to make it easy to clean hard to reach areas such a rugs, stairs, and upholstery. Includes a trial-size BISSELL Professional Pet Urine Eliminator + Oxy.
This was very handy to have when our kitchen sink and dishwasher pipes backed up and flooded. I was able to quickly suck up all of the water and avoid a lot of damage and work that way. I originally bought it for my dog’s messes on the carpet, and it is effective for that purpose as well both for stain and smell.
The water tank lasts a long time when used just for this purpose. The tank saver tool has less effective suction than the main tool and had to be emptied more frequently than was convenient for cleaning up a large mess.
Definitely save for the small stuff and just use the main tank for bigger messes. I always had enough clean water left in the tank to rinse out the dirty tank.
Indoor pets, big and small, can make a big mess. Whether a dog, cat, puppy, kitten, hedgehog, bunny or hamster, keep the Pet Portable Spot Cleaner handy for an immediate fix for lifes accidents. The Pet Portable Spot Cleaner is a powerful clean for not only pet messes, but everyday accidents.
With twice the suction power compared to leading spot cleaning machines, Rug Doctors Pet PSC eliminates embedded dirt, tough stains and odors from pets and kids alike. The handheld Dual-Action pet tool expertly removes pet hair, as well as tough, set-in spots, stains and odors.
Carpet-friendly wheels and retractable handle make it effortless to glide the machine across carpets and stairs for ideal pet-made stain elimination. The professional grade, compact, portable machine works seamlessly anytime, anywhere whether on carpet, area rugs, stairs, upholstery, pet beds, auto interiors and more.
I first started cleaning carpets professionally back in 1977, and since thatime I have used a LOT of carpet cleaning devices. That said, I needed a small, portable cleaning unit for cleaning the stairs in our new house.
I tried another brand (won’t say who but it was green) because it was on sale, and the vacuum extracted NO water from the carpet! Horrible suction! I took it back and since I recently used a Rug Doctor at work that has incredible suction, bought this one and I LOVE IT! Refilling the clean water tank is not that big of a deal, but being to completely empty and rinse out the dirty water tank is a strong point as I don’t want dirty water clinging to the inside of my tanks! The power cord is long enough that I can clean the entire staircase top to bottom without having to disconnect from the outlet! If I had any annoyance it is that the brush pad is a bit agressive and really doesn’t allow much for back-and-forth motion of the wand across the carpet, but all in all it does all that I would expect it to! Highly recommend for stairs, automotive, and yes, pets!.
Bought this product to help with pet messes and spills. Machine worked great at first when I purchased it then after a while it lost suction. I returned it three times while under warranty. It would work for a while then lose suction again.
I asked for a refund and they refused since my 90 days was over. I wanted to get it serviced and they would never give me the address for repair they kept saying find a local repair shop. The closest one is over 50 miles away from my house.
I will not buy another rug dr product I will get a bissel animal pet cleaner.
Like: nozzle design allows me to easily apply pressure, which is necessary to vacuum water deep down. Also, it’s all one piece; my previous machine had removable piece which leaked suction and was the first thing to break.
Also, short hose length helps provide greater suction. Machine is light weight and stable enough to position close to what I am cleaning. Also, suction head does a good job at carpet/ wall edges, and “pet tool” scrubber is more effective than bristles.
Dislike: soap trigger oversprays a bit wildly, poorly designed. Overall I like it enough to keep it but I think it is overpriced for what it does. Elbow grease not included.
Do not let its small size fool you Mytees S300H Tempo Heated Extractor is a powerhouse. Perfect for serious auto detailing, carpet, and upholstery spotting the 600 watt heated S300H Tempo packs a lot of power into a small package.
And at only 26 pounds you will find that the Tempo takes a load off your back without taking a load out of your wallet.
This is a great beginner machine for the entry level detailer. It will remove most of the stains, smells, and nastiness in carpets and seats. The mobility of the unit is good. It’s not too big or heavy to load and unload repeatedly into and out of a truck.
There are a few annoying factors with the machine though. 1. The small capacity means doing a single vehicle requires 7-8 fill-up and drains. 2. The vacuum filter clogs often and is very hard to remove and clean.
Additionally, after the second removal of the filter, it broke partially 3. The machine pulls 120 Amps, this is 5 more than the average home circuit so the machine will often trip breakers/GFCI’s. This wouldn’t be an issue in a brick and mortar detailing business however for a mobile operation this is a big annoyance.
4. Make sure you use non-foaming soap as the foam building up in the dirty tank causes extra load on the vacuum (causing it to trip breakers/GFCI’s), and causing steam and liquid to spray out of all the oraphases of the machine.
Mytee Lite II Carpet Extractor Mytee Lite 8070 Carpet Extractor Machine, Heated 3 Gallon tank 1,000-watt in-line heater produces hot water to 210-degrees that quickly breaks up grease and dirt. Easily fill 3-gallon solution tank with bucket or faucet fill.
15′ vacuum and solution hose along with the 4″ stainless steel upholstery tool are included. 3-stage vacuum motor with 130″ of water lift – highest in its class!.
The Mytee lite II is aptly named. It is light enough for my wife to load it in & out of the back of her Toyota Matrix & yet it does what a heavyweight machine would too. In my very limited experience.
We purchased a dual spray 12″ low profile head, truck mount wand for carpet work & this machine handles it like they were built for each other. If you start with very hot water & work carefully the heater keeps up just fine.
It’s maneuverable, easy to operate & quieter than I expected. The only reason I did not give it 5 stars as a product is because it should have some sort of indicator light to let you know that the pump & heater switches are on.
Also there is a kind of moulded “lip’ in the recovery tank across under the inlet hose that traps a lot of sand there. Easy enough to rinse out with a hose, but the access to the recovery tank could be a little better for cleaning if you have big hands.
The cart handle is nice for moving it around, but makes it too tall to fit upright in the Toyota Matrix so we lay it on it’s side. The drain & fill hoses are very nice! no lifting the machine or dismantling it to dump, or messing around with buckets to fill it.
It’s the little machine that could, to kinda borrow a children’s book quote. All in all it is an excellent choice for detailing, carpet runners ( we just did about 80′ of commercial ones tonight) & small to medium carpet jobs.
We would certainly recommend this machine to friends.
The Mytee HP60 hot water extractor features two 5-gallon capacity tanks. The Mytee HP60 carpet extractor has a powerful 3 stage vacuum, 1200 watt in-line heating system and a 120 psi pump. The HP60 Spyder also comes standard with 15′ vacuum and solution hoses and a durable 4″stainless upholstery/carpet tool.
You can purchase the optional Mytee Crevice Tool and 10″ Single Jet EZ Collapsible Floor Wand to make this work horse of a carpet extractor even more versatile. Separate yourself from your competitors and offer interior soil extraction services to do a better job and generate more revenues! Detail King also offers an array of tools and accessories for the HP60.
In addition, Detail King offers the HP60 in various value packages. The Mytee HP60 Spyder Offers: Performance – Using our exclusive REAL HEAT system, the 1,200-watt in-line heater with maximum 210 temperature produces hot water that quickly breaks up grease and dirt.
The single 3-stage LA (low amp) motor makes the extractor even more effective with 130″ water lift and 100 CFM. Convenience and safety – A 15′ vacuum and internal solution hose combo which is 1. 25″ wide for easy maneuvering in tight spots.
The upholstery tool has a low profile end, perfect for detailing and getting within the cracks and crevices of an autos interior. Also, the HP60 comes equipped with a high drain valve for emptying into a standard bucket.
Durability – With a tough, roto-molded polyethylene material that resists rusting and denting. Compact design – Fits perfectly into a van, truck or storage area. In addition, Mytee has a national network of service centers.
Mytee Extractor HP 60 Performance Using our exclusive REAL HEAT system, the 1, 200 watt in line heater with maximum 210F temperature produces hot water that quickly breaks up grease and dirt. The single 3 stage LA (low amp) motor makes the extractor even more effective with 130′ Water lift and 100 CFM Convenience and safety A 15′ vacuum and internal solution hose combo which is 1.
25′ wide for easy maneuvering in tight spots. The upholstery tool has a low profile end, perfect for detailing and getting within the cracks and crevices of an autos interior. Also, the HP60 comes equipped with a high drain valve for emptying into a standard bucket.
Durability With a tough, roto molded polyethylene material that resists rusting and denting.
It permanently removes spots and stains from carpets and upholstery with water, formula, and suction. Spray and suction to dry in one easy step, and scrub away tough stains with the 3′ stain tool. Built-in heater heats tap water up to 25 degrees hotter.
I am amazed at how effective this machine is at cleaning up even very old pet stains from carpet and mattress topper. I have two chihuahuas that occasionally barf on the bed or my carpeted bedroom floor, and sometimes they will pee too on the carpeting.
I of course blot up as much as possible when this occurs but it was still gross. Not bad enough that it stank to high heaven or anything but the beige carpet looked gross with lots of little spots and definitely needed a freshening.
I couldn’t believe how immediately this machine removes the pee and barf stains!! Even ones that were really old, even got old bile stains out of a white mattress topper-quickly and easily. Everything looks and smells great now.
I really can barely believe it! I happened to get this machine second hand/used from someone’s tag sale but I would pay the full price. Well worth it!.
It comes ready to use with no assembly required. Simply connect a tool such as the 6″ stair tool to the end of the hose, fill the clean water/formula tank with Professional Deep Cleaning formula, plug it in, turn it on and you’re ready to spot clean.
Use the rug cleaner to clean areas that are difficult or hard to reach such as stairs, area rugs, upholstery, and auto interiors. The Spot Clean Pro comes prepared with tools to effectively clean each surface.
Use the 6″ brush tool to clean stairs and area rugs or use the 3″ brush tool to clean stubborn spots or upholstery. Spot Clean Pro is a convenient way to clean. It is ‘s largest capacity portable machine so you are able to fill and empty the tanks less frequently.
Superior suction power helps you to remove spots and stains better than a rag and cleaner.
I’m quite pleased with the performance of this device. I had a seat pillow that was the favorite pet hangout and I needed a way to clean that wouldn’t involve literally having to hose down and shampoo the pillow in the garden (which I was very close to doing).
So! Took the plunge and ordered the spotclean pro (I preferred the this ones attachments over the pet one), popped in some Bissell pro oxi and went to town on the pillow as well as hot spots on my couches I was unable fix before.
It managed to get out an incredible amount of dirt I thought was a lost cause. It got most of the dog butt stank out of my pillow. Cat smells are practically gone. I actually found I missed a spot because It was the only place that still had an somewhat noticable odor.
These were hardcore projects I did not expect the machine to clean as well as it did. My only gripe is, she be a noisy thing. But that’s forgiven based on the nastiness it’s made to suck up ha. It had some leakage after maintenance but I chalk this up to the learning curve, as in likely just human error.
Overal a thumbs up from me. And thanks for letting me enjoy my seats without feeling like I sit on butts and toots.
Don’t let dirt, grime, or pet dander ruin your home’s floors any longer. Keep your carpet clean with ease by using the BISSELL SportClean Pro Carpet Cleaner. SpotClean Pro is a powerful and compact, portable carpet cleaner that gives you a professional-level clean.
It uses powerful suction, special cleaning solution and a scrubbing action to remove stubborn dirt and tough stains from areas in your home or car where it may be hard to bring in a full-size carpet cleaner.
This carpet spot cleaner was designed with a large-capacity tank that holds ¾ gallon of cleaning solution, so you can clean more area without having to refill the tank as often. SpotClean Pro also comes with a 5-foot hose and 22-foot power cord, so it’s easy to use this portable carpet cleaner as a stain remover on carpet, upholstery, area rugs, car interiors, stairs, and more.
Just like a professional carpet cleaner can, SpotClean Pro removes stains like wine, tea, coffee, urine, mud, blood, and vomit. Plus, it comes with a trial-sized bottle of BISSELL Professional Deep Cleaning Formula, a tough stain tool and a stair tool.
Keep your floors clean with ease with the help of the BISSELL SportClean Pro Carpet Cleaner.
Makes cleaning spots and stains easy, can reach awkward or hard to reach spaces other extractors and shampooers cannot reach. The little green pro spot cleaner utilizes vacuum suction, brushing action and cleaning solution to remove dirt and stains from carpeting and rugs.
It has a long hose and a 20 foot power cord and 6 inch upholstery tool, great for reaching tough to clean areas. A large 3/4 gallon tank capacity allows for less frequent trips so you can clean for longer.
The little green pro commercial spot cleaner is great for cleaning carpeting, rugs, upholstery, furniture, automobiles, RVs and much more. Age Group: adult.
11. Bissell SpotClean Proheat Portable Spot and Stain Carpet Cleaner 2694 Blue
Take On Tough Stains
Easy to Use
Easy to Store
Deep Stain Tool
No need to pull out a full-size carpet cleaning machine every time a stain or spot appears on your carpet. With the BISSELL SpotClean ProHeat, you can permanently remove though spots and stains. * It’s a powerful portable compact cleaning machine.
Built-in HeatWave Technology maintains consistent water temperature while cleaning for heated cleaning. Designed to easily clean carpets, upholstery, stairs, area rugs, auto interiors, and more. With a lightweight design, the BISSELL SpotClean ProHeat Portable Carpet Cleaner is easy to use and easy to store.
*Permanently removes tough stains when used with BISSELL Spot & Stain and Oxy Boost formula.
IšverstiShow in original languageWorst cleaner ever. The pet brush over sprays in all directions. And it refuses to pick up water. It just leaks all over under the machine. Absolute waste of money. I tried it a few different times hoping it was a 1 time error with the leaking under the unit.
But nope. It just kept leaking. You have to repeatedly remove and reseat the dirty tank to get it to pick up any water at all. You have to pay attention and when it starts shooting water out the bottom relift and reseat again.
Not worth the hassle for the clean I got out of it. Disappointed it took me over the return time frame to try it again. So now I can’t return the thing. So they got to keep my money on this one. Next time I will just return it 1st time.
And not keep hoping it is something I am not doing right. Don’t make my mistake get something different.
Performance – The New Mytee-Lite now boasts an improved high performance 3-stage vacuum motor featuring 100 CFM and 130″ of water lift! This unit also carries a 120 PSI pump, while putting out 1. 3 GPM.
Also, it has had modifications to its 1,000W heater making it the most efficient in its class, and reaching temperatures of 210oF. Convenience – Mytee also equipped the new Mytee-Lite with a 15′ vacuum and internal solution hose combo.
Also, a new handle with deeper baskets and a hanger for hoses. Additionally, now have the option to fill your extractor unit with a bucket or faucet fill. Finish your extracting work easily, with the new easy-empty tank drains.
The machine is fantastic. Detail king offered the best price on the market and shipping was relatively fast. The only issue was unexpected Brokerage charges that exceeded $100 that I didn’t know about until the package arrived.
Other than that issue it’s been a fantastic purchase.
Mytee lite II 8070 portable with 210 degree heat includes: vac/solution hose & upholstery tool The Mytee Lite II new improved for 2015. Offers larger vacuum with a 3-stage vac motor (compared to their previous model was only 2-stage) and now in a 4 gallon tank, includes auto fill hose Great for spotting, upholstery cleaning, automotive detailing, and more.
The machine has a number of convenient features such as: Specifications: 4 Gallon Capacity 3 Stage Vacuum, 130” Water Lift 1000 Watt Heater, 210o Temp. 100 PSI Pump 6” Non-marking Rear Wheels and 2” Front Casters Handy Removable Vacuum Tank Faucet Fill hose for easy fill solution tank A110 Drain hose for easy waste tank disposal Bonus: Also include the following: 15’ 1-1/4” Vacuum & Solution Hose internal with Storage Basket & Cord Wrap 3” Stainless Steel Upholstery Tool 24”x16”x37”: 44 lbs.
I’ve been looking at this machine for a few years now and I finally bought it back Friday. It works great, it has a good vacuume and sucks well. The in line heater is also nice to have and gets very hot fairly quickly.
It is very well constructed and put together with care. All the wires are nearly zip tied and covered with loom unlike other machines. The hardware is all stainless steel and brass fittings are good quality and unlikely to break easily.
I did see on mytees website they have plastic quick disconnect covers so you don’t burn your hands for $2. 99, would It kill mytee to include them lol? The only draw back to this unit is how this unit drains the dirty water.
The drain is located right above the switches and pours all over them I called mytee and their solution was to “tip the machine” which is ok (not really) but either way the nasty waste water gets all over your hands.
Mytee also said “we sell a adapter hose for $25. 99” I feel they know it sucks and that’s the solution if it bothers the owner enough but I also feel a machine that can retail to over $900 should include a proper/more professional way to drain it like include their after thought.
This deep cleaner has been tested and designed to clean better, dry faster and make cleaning more efficient. Flow indicator monitors water and solution levels so you never unexpectedly run out of fluids.
Two motors individually power the suction and brush roll. 12″ pigtail cord with a 25′ extension cord extends your reach to get more work done at once. Adjustable handle lets you adjust it to a comfortable height setting.
Large-capacity dual tanks remove easily for quick filling or emptying.
Product was pre-assembled, operation instructions were clear. Picked up a lot of dirt, as evidenced by the dirty water. When you use it, make sure it’s picking up on the vacuum cycles (as evidenced by seeing water come up into the tank).
If it’s not, make sure the tanks are installed securely. The vacuum strokes do an excellent job of picking the water up but do be sure to keeping going over the carpet until not much water is getting pulled out.
I’m glad i bought this model! I wanted a heavy-duty machine and this certainly is. I got the BG10 because it’s the commercial model – have to buy the hose attachment separately, which i haven’t done yet.
Since the machine worked well, i do plan to buy the hose attachment. The residential model comes with the hose and attachments but i’m glad i went for the commercial (BG10) model.
Great machine, originally bought the Bissell Pet carpet cleaner but when I got home and opened the box it looked to be a stylish plastic piece of junk. I returned it and bought this for about $50 more.
This thing looks to be a beast and cleaned our carpets better than I could imagine. I expect this cleaner to last for a long time due to the way if is constructed. I had a previous “home use” Bissell and after a while the clear plastic began to get brittle and crack, it had a single bladder tank that eventually leaked and the machine was hard to maintain.
This machine has tanks that appear to be made for commercial use and are easy to refill and clean. It only required me to fill the water tank 2x’s versus my previous one that required me to fill it about 6 times.
This machine works really good. Twice a yr I use it to freshen up our carpets. I don’t have a soft water and we have very hard water. So, I put a small pot of water on the stove and turn it off just before it comes to a full boil.
It helps to dilute the cleaning solution. I need to express how important it is to throughly rinse the carpet with clean hot water. If you don’t then your carpet will feel the same way soapy hair does when it dries.
Mytee HP60 Automotive Detail Extractor. Using a pump, vacuum and heater once required two power cords, making it hard to find a power source. But this trailblazing design changed all that, and the rest is history.
BISSELL Little Green Professional Portable Spot Cleaner is a compact, portable carpet cleaner that combines powerful suction, scrubbing action, and cleaning solution for professional cleaning results removing stubborn dirt and tough stains.
Designed to easily clean carpet, upholstery, stairs, area rugs, auto interiors and more. The Little Green Professional has a 22 ft. cord, includes a a 4″ tough stain brush, a Deep Stain Tool and an 8 oz.
trial size formula of BISSELL’s Professional Formula.
I have berber carpet in my apartment which I believe to have been here since the building was constructed in 2001. And needless to say, it is a terrible carpet. It’s ugly for one, but it traps stains quickly and with a dog who has extreme anxiety about new places, she used the restroom on it a lot when we first moved in.
It has settled for months and I’ve tried a friends portable bissell pet eraser a couple times, but the stains were still there. I was mostly hoping for this machine to get the odor out and to maybe lighten up the stains.
BUT NO, the stains are GONE. I mean seriously, it looks as good as 20 year old berber carpet can be. And I was stressed about using it on berber because there were no reviews about this kind of carpet.
But to say the least, I am extremely impressed. And it’s easy to store because of its size and easy to set it up and clean it out. 10/10 recommend.
This is one impressive little machine. I had a used recliner sitting in a corner and I used this chair to pile things on for a couple of years. Dirty boxes, dirty muddy shoes, it was the go to dump spot for things I didnt want to deal with at the time.
I bought the Bissell Little Green Spot Pro after reading reviews on it. The amount of dirt and grit (actual sandy, dirty grit) it pulled out of the upholstery was TRULY impressive. I was shocked by the brown water and 1/4″ thick layer of grit at the bottom of the container.
The chair was not soggy after using the Bissell Spot cleaner, the key is to go over it several times (in different directions) and keep the head upright to get maximum water removal. I was able to sit on the chair after 2 hours on a 60° day in November (I did put down a towel to help remove any moisture still in the fabric when I sat on it).
The upholstery smells awesome (I added a Tbsp of Oxi Clean powder to the cleaning mixture) , feels soft to touch, looks brighter and like a chair you’d actually want to sit on. Wish I could give this machine a 20 star review.
Im a furniture repair technician and do spot cleanings from time to time, no where near on a commercial level but about once a week. I have had to buy two of these. One was in my truck over night and froze.
After that it never sprayed again. I figured it was just defective so I got another one because it worked ok. Same thing happened to the second one. Tiny bit of water froze and the sprayer no longer works.
I wish they would put a warning on it that says to not let it get below freezing. Im beyond disappointed because I’ve talked these up a great deal (I use it professionally) and I’m about $300 in the hole.
Not wasting money on another one. Don’t leave it in your truck if it gets below 32 f.
Mytee 8070 Mytee-Lite. Are you looking for an upholstery-spotting machine that can do the job of a full-size extractor, but is small and light enough to hold in one hand? Meet the Mytee-Lite, our best-selling upholstery machine and the first in.
Offering complete interior cleaning and detailing services is now a reality with our Mytee Tornador Value Package. You will be able to offer carpet and upholstery cleaning with the heated Mytee extractor.
The extractor will not only clean the surfaces but deep clean to remove ground-in dirt, most stains and pet odors. The Tornador will make cleaning of headliners, door panels, dash boards, consoles and other interior components a cinch when it comes to cleaning and detailing the interior of a car, pick up truck, SUV or van.
The CleanFreak commercial carpet spot cleaning machine combines power and affordability. It features 3 gallon solution and recovery tanks, 55 PSI pump and two-stage vacuum motor. The unit itself weighs 21 pounds, but weight is added as the solution tank is filled, making the transport handle and wheels a great convenience.
This is listed as a spot cleaning machine for carpet but as someone in the industry that has used the machines this is copied from I am going to have to say the vacuum is weaker than the norm, the nozzles are cheap plastic instead of standard brass fittings, and the pump for your water spray is much much weaker than should be acceptable for use on carpet.
Having the solution hose go through the vacuum line seems like a good idea on paper but in operation it will create problems, creates failure points in the vacuum line and will make replacing it problematic when it goes out, as it surely will under any kind of continous use due to the low grade of solution line.
My advice is this, if your going to use it at home and for personal use it will be fine. But if your planning on using this for work please save yourself the headache and pay an extra hundred bucks for a quality machine.
Definitely superior to a lot of other consumer extractors like bissell. This was my first professional, commercial level extractor and I’m very happy. The product is great and it’s at a very great price.
If your a detailer the most important thing is suction power the reason I knew that it had great suction in my own opinion was because after I actually did my own carpet which was dirty and looks great now.
I asked myself how do I know how great the suction power is. so everyone in the detailing business knows about the Ridgid wet and dry vac with a 5. 0 motor. I had an idea to suck up more water after I finished with my clean freak and guess what???? There wasn’t a drop of water in my Ridgid wet and dry vac.
I also loved being able to see the dirt that flowed thru my wand. Thank clean freak heart job.
The carpet extractor is an important tool for auto detailing. It is used to remove dirt, dust, and stains from carpets and upholstery. The extractor is a powerful vacuum that sucks up dirt and debris from carpets and upholstery.
It is also equipped with brushes that scrub and clean carpets and upholstery. The extractor is a versatile tool that can be used to clean a wide variety of surfaces.